Indian National Movement
Indian National Movement helped to unite disparate people and social groups into one nation, shaping an important period of Indian history. Awareness began to emerge with the growth of English education in a few important urban areas, including Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, in the late 19th century. Intellectuals at the time opposed the injustices and deceit of the previous societal structure. After focusing on the concept of British rule and its impact on India, the informed Indians became progressively more critical of British policies in India. This article has complete details related to Indian National Movement for UPSC Exam Preparations.
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Indian National Movement Phases
Based on the time period, the leadership, the objectives, the techniques used, and the social base, the National Movement during the years 1885 to 1947 can be divided into the following three phases.
|Phase||Period||Leadership||Goal||Methods adopted||Social Base|
|Moderate Phase||1885-1905||Moderates/Early Nationalists||Dominion Status||Constitutional Methods-Petitions, Prayers, Plead||Educated Urban Upper Classes|
|Extremist/Militant Nationalist Phase||1905-1920||Extremists/Militant Nationalists||Swaraj/Self-Government||Passive Resistance & Swadeshi||All Urban Classes|
|Gandhian Phase||1920-1947||Mahatma Gandhi||Sampurna Swaraj/Complete Independence||Satyagraha||All Urban and Rural Classes(including grass-root level population and masses)|
Read More: Reformist Movements & Revivalist Movements
Indian National Movement List
This List represents all the Indian National Movement. Read the List to know all about all the Indian national movement:
Indian National Movements [1857 to 1947]
|Year||Indian National Movement|
|1857||The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 started in Meerut and expanded to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow.|
|1905-1911||Swadeshi movement: Lord Curzon’s partition of Bengal|
|1914-1917||Gadar Movement resulted in Komagata Maru incident|
|1916-1918||Home Rule Movement aunched by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant|
|1917||Champaran Satyagraha resulted in First non-violent protest in India by Mahatama Gandhi|
|1920||Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement: It was first Mass Movement led by Gandhi|
|1930||Civil Disobedience Movement resulted to break the Salt law|
|1940||Individual Satyagraha resulted in against the August Offer, 1940.|
|1942||Quit India Movement were Gandhi launched his third major movement against British rule.|
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Indian National Movement Moderate Phase (1885-1905)
W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dhadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badiruddin Tyabji, and Judge Ranade were among the prominent figures during the first phase (moderate phase) of the National Movement. They were referred to as moderates because they used legal and peaceful means to fulfil their requests. The moderates’ requests included things like:
- Reform and expansion of legislative committees.
- Greater chances for Indians in higher positions thanks to the simultaneous administration of the ICS test in England and India.
- The division of the judicial and administrative branches.
- Greater authority for municipal governments.
- A cut in military expenditures.
freedom of association, freedom of opinion, and freedom of expression The Moderates were loyal to the British and had complete confidence in them. The Moderates presented their requests through petitions, resolutions, meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memoranda, and representatives. Only the educated classes were allowed to participate in their political actions. Their goal was to gradually achieve political freedom and self-government. The Indian Councils Act of 1892 expanded the legislative councils, which was the only request from the Congress that the British government approved.
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Important Moderate Personalities
- Dhadabhai Naoroji was referred to as India’s “Grand Old Man.” In England, he is considered as India’s unofficial ambassador. The first Asian to hold a seat in the British House of Commons, he made history.
- Gandhi looked up to Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political mentor. He established the Servants of India Society in 1905 to teach Indians how to spend their lives in service of their nation.
- The Indian Burke was the moniker given to Surendranath Banerjee. In order to advocate for legislative reforms, he established the Indian Association in 1876. He had called for the 1883 convocation of the Indian National Conference, which in 1886 united with the Indian National Congress.
- The Hindu and Swadesamitran were established by G. Subramanya Aiyar..
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Indian National Movement Extremist Phase (1905-1916)
The Indian National Movement went through an extreme era from 1905 to 1916. Extremists served as the phase’s leader. Extremists or aggressive patriots thought that success could be attained by using risky tactics. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh were significant radical figures.
Important events during extremist phase were:
- Partition of Bengal in 1905;
- Swadeshi movement in 1905–06;
- Muslim alliance formation in 1906;
- Surat Split in 1907;
- Morley–Minto reforms in 1909;
- Delhi Conspiracy case in 1912;
- Komagata Maru incident in 1914;
- Home rule movement in 1916; and
- Lucknow Pact in 1916.
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Indian National Movement UPSC
For many government exams, the Indian National Movement is a very pertinent subject in Indian history, and understanding the types of questions that might be asked in the test is the only way to fully comprehend the importance of this topic. Candidates should therefore practice enough queries on the subject. Peasant movements were a part of societal struggles against British atrocities during the British Colonial Period in the 18th and 19th centuries. This article has all the details related to Indian National Movement for UPSC Preparations.
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