Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 2 March 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2023

Q) Which one of the following statements is not correct about ‘Quantum Tunneling’?

  1. It happens when wave functions penetrate through a barrier.
  2. It is used to explain the alpha decay of atomic nuclei.
  3. It can be explained through the laws of classical mechanics.
  4. It has an important role in processes of nuclear fusion.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 1 March 2023


  • Option (1) is correct: Quantum tunneling is defined as a quantum mechanical process where wave functions can penetrate through a potential barrier. The transmission through the potential barrier can be finite and relies exponentially on the barrier width and barrier height. Molecules have been caught Tunnelling for the first time recently.
  • Option (2) and (4) are correct: It has a crucial role in physical processes such as nuclear fusion. Tunneling can be understood through the concepts of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. It’s been used in quantum computing, tunnel diodes and scanning tunnelling microscopes. The tunnel effect is also used to explain the alpha decay of atomic nuclei. By including the tunnel effect some astrochemical syntheses of molecules in interstellar dark cloud.
  • Option (3) is incorrect: Quantum tunnelling cannot be explained through the laws of classical mechanics, where a dense potential barrier needs potential energy. Quantum tunneling is forecasted to create physical limits to the dimensions of the transistors employed in microelectronics. Quantum mechanics allows particles due to their quantum mechanical wave properties to break through the energetic barrier (wall) and a reaction occurs.

Q) Consider the following statements about forest cover in India:

  1. Any private plot of one hectare or more with at least ten percent tree canopy density is counted as forest cover by the Forest Survey of India.
  2. India’s forest cover has only increased by two percent in the last four decades.
  3. The dense forests within recorded forest areas have increased by three percent in the last three decades.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


  • Statement 1 is correct: In India, the Forest Survey of India (FSI) is responsible for carrying out forest cover assessment. It works under the aegis of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The FSI conducts periodic forest cover assessments using a scientific system of mapping and assessment. It counts all plots of 1 hectare or above, with at least 10% tree canopy density, irrespective of land use or ownership, within forest cover. All land areas with tree canopy density of 40% and above are considered dense forests and those between 10-40% are open forests.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Since 19.53% in the early 1980s, India’s forest cover has increased to 21.71% in 2021. As per the India State of Forest Report-2021, forest and tree cover in the country increased by 2,261 square kilometres or 0.28% since the last assessment in 2019. India’s total forest and tree cover was 80.9 million hectares, which accounted for 24.62% of the geographical area of the country. The Total Forest cover is 7,13,789 sq km which is 21.71% of the geographical area of the country. The Tree cover is 2.91% of the geographical area of the country. The report said 17 States and Union Territories had more than 33% of their area under forest cover.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: Recorded Forest Areas in India are land recorded as forest in revenue records or proclaimed as forest under a forest law, which account for 23.58% of India. Over time, some of these areas have lost forest cover due to encroachment, diversion, and forest fires, while tree cover has improved in many places outside of these areas due to agroforestry and orchards. Despite extensive plantation efforts by the Indian forest department since the 1990s, dense forests within Recorded Forest Areas have decreased from 10.88% in 1987 to 9.96% in 2021, with nearly 20,000 sq km of dense forests becoming non-forests since 2003.

Q) With reference to Neuromorphic Computing, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a computer design based on the systems found in the human nervous system.
  2. It consumes huge amounts of electricity to facilitate parallel information processing.
  3. There is no need to perform back-and-forth data movement for image processing in neuromorphic computing.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only


  • Statement 1 is correct: Neuromorphic Computing is inspired by the human brain and the functioning of the nervous system; Neuromorphic Computing was a concept introduced in the 1980s. Neuromorphic Computing refers to the designing of computers that are based on the systems found in the human brain and the nervous system. Neuromorphic computing devices can work as efficiently as the human brain without acquiring large room for the placement of software.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Neuromorphic computing provides benefits such as fast parallel processing with minimum power requirement. One of the technological advancements that has rekindled the interest of scientists in neuromorphic computing is the development of the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN). It aims to improve energy efficiency, computation speed, and learning efficiency in various applications such as voice, vision, gesture recognition, robotics, and search retrieval.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Neuromorphic Computing also eliminates the need for back-and-forth data movement between components in the von Neumann architecture; this is expected to drive its adoption for image and signal processing applications. Moreover, its expected adoption in consumer electronics, automotive, healthcare, and military and defense sectors will also be largely responsible for driving the market growth.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. This place is famous for high altitude water lakes.
  2. Various faunal species like Snow leopard, Bharal and brown bear can be easily found here.
  3. River Indus flows through this area and divides it into two parts.

Which one of the following Wildlife Sanctuary/National Park is best described in the statements given above?

  1. Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Hemis National Park
  4. Surinsar Mansar Wildlife Sanctuary


  • Option (2) is correct: Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the Tibetan Changthang plateau. It is famous for high altitude water lakes, Tsomoriri and Pangong Tso. The topography is formed of deep gorges and vast plateaus. There are around 11 lakes and 10 marshes in the Changthang Cold Desert Sanctuary, and the River Indus flows through the sanctuary, dividing it into two parts. It is famous for being the home of the snow leopard. The Tibetan wolf, wild yak, bharal, brown bear, mormot, Tibetan wild ass and dark-necked crane are also found in the sanctuary. National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) has approved a proposal decision to transfer 3.16 hectares of land from the Changthang wildlife sanctuary in Ladakh to the IAF’s mountain radar

Q) With reference to ‘NEOMIR Mission’, consider the following statements:

  1. It is related to the discovery of Earth-like planets and the investigation of their atmospheres.
  2. It was recently placed into orbit around the first Lagrange point between the Sun and Earth by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  3. It will also serve as an early warning system to keep track of any asteroid that is headed for Earth.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only


  • Statements 1 and 2 are incorrect but statement 3 is correct: The European Space Agency (ESA) has planned NEOMIR mission for finding dangerous asteroids hidden by the Sun. ESA’s upcoming NEOMIR mission will be launched into orbit around the first Lagrange point(L1) between the Sun and Earth. This will give the telescope a view of asteroids that may come towards the Earth from the direction of the Sun. The NEOMIR orbiting observatory will act as an early warning system to detect and monitor any asteroid coming towards Earth from the Sun’s direction. Asteroids are visible because they reflect the Sun’s light, which we can detect from Earth. However, the closer they get to the Sun, the harder they are to see. Being situated outside of Earth’s distorting atmosphere, NEOMIR will monitor a close ring around the Sun that is impossible to observe from the ground. By making observations in the infrared part of the light spectrum, NEOMIR will detect the heat emitted by asteroids themselves, which isn’t drowned out by sunlight. This thermal emission is absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, but from space, NEOMIR will be able to see closer to the Sun than we can currently from Earth. NEOMIR will provide the data for local authorities to keep communities informed of airbursts weeks ahead.

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