Biosphere Reserves in India, List, Map, Names, State wise 2023

Biosphere Reserves in India

Biosphere Reserves in India: A biosphere reserve is a region of land or water that has been identified by UNESCO as having exceptional universal value due to its biological characteristics. According to the article, these reserves are crucial for the preservation of biological diversity and the sustainable exploitation of natural resources.

UNESCO states that “Biosphere reserves are regions of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems that promote methods to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are recognized on a global scale, selected by national governments, and continue to be governed by the sovereign authority of the states in which they are found.

Biosphere Reserves in India History

Two years following the launch of the MAB-Man and biosphere program, UNESCO published the network of biosphere reserves in 1971. These regions are associated with the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), according the law.

In addition to preserving nature, Biosphere Reserves seeks to strike a balance between social, economic, and cultural development. The Biosphere Reserve is not, however, governed by any laws. The first Biosphere Reserves were created in 1979, and today there are 701 Biosphere Reserves spread over 124 nations, with 21 transboundary locations.

Biosphere Reserves in India Structure

Core Areas

A Biosphere Reserve’s Core Area is the most secure area and may contain indigenous species of flora and animals. It is the most suited place for a wide variety of plant and animal species, and it might also contain endemism centers. The wild cousins of the commercial species are frequently preserved in a biosphere reserve’s core sections. A core area is a national park or sanctuary that is governed by and protected by the Wildlife Act of 1972.

Buffer Zone

To put it simply, the buffer zone abuts or surrounds the core zone. The management of the activities and uses in this area contributes to the preservation of the core zones’ natural state. Here, certain uses and activities are permitted to lessen their influence on the core zone, such as demonstrations, restoration projects to raise the value of the resources, tourism, limited recreation, grazing, fishing, etc.

Transition Zone

The Biosphere Reserve’s most remote area is this region. The most permissive action to promote sustainable human and economic development is allowed in this area. This covers settlements, farms, and woods that have been managed for economic purposes.

Biosphere Reserves in India List

Here’s a complete updated List of Biosphere Reserves in India:

Name of BiosphereYear of NotificationLocation
Nilgiri1986Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka
Nanda Devi1988Uttarakhand
Great Nicobar1989A&N Islands
Gulf of Mannar1989Tamil Nadu
Sunderbans1989West Bengal
Dehang-Dibang1998Arunachal Pradesh
Pachmarhi1999Madhya Pradesh
Achanakamar – Amarkantak2005Madhya Pradesh and Chhattishgarh State
Cold Desert2009Himachal Pradesh
Seshachalam Hills2010Andhra Pradesh
Panna2011Madhya Pradesh

UNESCO Protected Biosphere Reserves List

2000Nilgiri Biosphere ReserveTamil Nadu
2001Gulf of Mannar Biosphere ReserveTamil Nadu
2001Sundarbans Biosphere ReserveWest Bengal
2004Nanda Devi Biosphere ReserveUttarakhand
2009Pachmarhi Biosphere ReserveMadhya Pradesh
2009Nokrek Biosphere ReserveMeghalaya
2009Simlipal Biosphere ReserveOdisha
2012Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere ReserveChhattisgarh
2013Great Nicobar Biosphere ReserveGreat Nicobar
2016Agasthyamala Biosphere ReserveKerala and Tamil Nadu
2018Kanchenjunga Biosphere ReservePart of North and West Sikkim districts
2020Panna Biosphere ReserveMadhya Pradesh

Biosphere Reserves of India UPSC

  • The Mahendragiri Hill Complex would become a Biosphere Reserve, as suggested by the government of Odisha. If included, it will become Simlipal Biosphere Reserve the second biosphere reserve in Odisha.
  • The following table shows how the world’s biosphere reserves are distributed:
    • 85 sites in 31 countries in Africa
    • 33 locations in 12 Arab nations
    • 157 locations in 24 nations around Asia and the Pacific
    • 302 locations in 38 nations across Europe and North America
    • Latin America and the Caribbean contain 21 countries and 130 sites.
  • Panna Biosphere Reserve also received the designation of UNESCO Protected Biosphere Reserve internationally. The Indian Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve was also added to this list in 2018 before the status was granted in the year 2020.

Biosphere Reserves in India FAQs

Q) How many biosphere reserves are in India?

Ans. There are 18 biosphere reserves are in India

Q) Which is the 1st biosphere reserve in India?

Ans. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was the first biosphere reserve in India established in the year 1986. It is located in the Western Ghats and includes 2 of the 10 biogeographically provinces of India.

Q) How many biosphere reserves are there in India 2022?

Ans. Presently, there are 18 notified biosphere reserves in India.

Q) What is the largest and the smallest Biosphere Reserve in India?

Ans. The Gulf of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve in Gujarat is India’s largest Biosphere Reserve, and Dibru-Saikhowa in Assam is its smallest.

Q) Which is the 1st Biosphere reserve in India?

Ans. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, which is located in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala, is the country’s first biosphere reserve.

Q) Who declares the Biosphere reserve in India?

Ans. The Man & Biosphere (MAB) Program of UNESCO is where the State or Central Government of India designates the Biosphere Reserves.


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