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Detailed Important Articles in Indian Constitutions [UPSC Indian Policy Notes]

Articles of the Indian Constitution must be known to the UPSC Exam aspirants. There are 448 articles in the Indian Constitution (originally 395 articl
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List of Important Articles in Indian Constitution - Tips to Remember Indian Articles

Articles of the Indian Constitution must be known to the UPSC Exam aspirants. There are 448 articles in the Indian Constitution (originally 395 articles were there). Each set of articles covers important parts of the Constitution including, Legislatures, Executive, Schedules, Parts of Indian Constitution, Constitutional Bodies, Statutory Bodies, Fundamental Rights, and more.

This article will provide you with the list of those articles in Indian Constitution that are important for the Indian Polity (GS-II) syllabus of the IAS Exam.

Detailed Important Articles in Indian Constitutions  [UPSC Indian Policy Notes]
Detailed Important Articles in Indian Constitutions  [UPSC Indian Policy Notes]

How many articles are there in the Indian Constitution?

There are 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices with more than 100 amendments in the Indian Constitution. Not every article of the Indian Constitution is a must to know for UPSC Exams. Hence, all those articles in the Indian Constitution that are important from the IAS exam perspective are given below:

There are 25 parts of the Indian Constitution. They are mentioned in the table below:

Parts of the Indian Constitution

Subject Mentioned in the PartArticles in Indian Constitution
Part IUnion & Its TerritoryArticle 1-4
Part IICitizenshipArticle 5-11
Part IIIFundamental RightsArticle 12-35
Part IVDirective PrinciplesArticle 36-51
Part IV AFundamental DutiesArticle 51A
Part VThe UnionArticle 52-151
Part VIThe StatesArticle 152-237
Part VIINote: 7th Amendment Act, 1956 repealed Part 7
Part VIIIThe Union TerritoriesArticle 239-242
Part IXThe PanchayatsArticle 243-243O
Part IX AThe MunicipalitiesArticle 243P-243ZG
Part IX BCo-operative SocietiesArticle 243ZH-243ZT
Part XScheduled and Tribal AreasArticle 244-244A
Part XIRelation between Union & StatesArticle 245-263
Part XIIFinance, Property, Contracts and SuitsArticle 264-300A
Part XIIITrade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territory of IndiaArticle 301-307
Part XIVServices under the Union and StatesArticle 308-323
Part XIV ATribunalsArticle 323A-323B
Part XVElectionsArticle 324-329A
Part XVISpecial Provisions relating to certain classesArticle 330-342
Part XVIIOfficial LanguagesArticle 343-351
Part XVIIIEmergency ProvisionsArticle 352-360
Part XIXMiscellaneousArticle 361-367
Part XXAmendment of the ConstitutionArticle 368
Part XXITemporary, Transitional and Special ProvisionsArticle 369-392
Part XXIIShort title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in
Hindi and Repeals
Article 393-395
The description of the Indian articles entailing the Parts of the Indian Constitution is given below:

Part 1: article 1 to 4

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union.
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state.
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.

Part 2: Article 5 to 11

  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Part 3: Article 12 to 35

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state.
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution- Fundamental RightsInitially, the Constitution of India provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property U/A 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.   A legal right U/A 300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution- Right to Equality

  • Article 14 – Equality before the law.
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Right to Freedom

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:
    • a – Freedom of speech and expression.
    • b – Freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms.
    • c – Freedom to form associations or unions.
    • d – Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
    • e – Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
    • f – Omitted
    • g – Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Right against exploitation

  • Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
  • Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children (Under the age of 14) in factories and mines.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Right to freedom of Religion

  • Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
  • Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
  • Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
  • Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.

Cultural and Educational Rights: Article 29 and Article 30

  • Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
  • Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

Right to Constitutional Remedies: Article 32

  • Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 4: Directive Principal of States Policy

  • Article 36 – Definition
  • Article 37– Application of DPSP (Read about Directive Principles of States Policy in the linked article)
  • Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
  • Article 40 – Organization of a village panchayat
  • Article 41 – Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
  • Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for workers.
  • Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries.
  • Article 44 – Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only)
  • Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
  • Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
  • Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
  • Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
  • Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from the executive.
  • Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 4A-Fundamental Duties

There are 11 fundamental duties. 42nd amendment act 1976 added 10 fundamental duties. 86th amendment act 2002 added one more to the list.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 5: Union Article

  • Article 52 – The President of India
  • Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
  • Article 54 – Election of President
  • Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
  • Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
  • Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States
  • Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
  • Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
  • Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President
  • Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
  • Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
  • Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
  • Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
  • Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
  • Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills
  • Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
  • Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
  • Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
  • Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record
  • Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
  • Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
  • Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
  • Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court of India binding on all the courts
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India
  • Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 6: States Article

  • Article 153 – Governors of State
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
  • Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
  • Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
  • Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be a court of record
  • Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
  • Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
  • Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 7: Repealed Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 8: Union Territories Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 9-Panchayats

  • Article 243A – Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats 

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 9A Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 10 - Scheduled and tribal areas Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 11- Centre-state relation Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 12 – Finance, Properties, Contracts, and Suits: Article 264 to Article 300 A

  • Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
  • Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
  • Article 280 – Finance Commission
  • Article 300 A – Right to property

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 13 – Trade, Commerce, and Intercourse within the territories of India: Article 301 to Article 307

  • Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse
  • Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 14 – Services under Centre and State: Article 308 to Article 323

  • Article 312 – All– India–Service
  • Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and for the states (Know all about PSC Exams in the linked article.)
  • Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 14A – Tribunals: Article 323 A to Article 323 B

  • Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals

Important Articles in Indian Constitution-Part 15 – Elections: Article 324 to Article 329

  • Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
  • Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
  • Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage

Part 16 – Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc: Article 330 to Article 342

  • Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
  • Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes

Part 17 – Official Language: Article 343 to Article 351

  • Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
  • Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
  • Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts
  • Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages

Part 18 – Emergency: Article 352 to Article 360

  • Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
  • Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
  • Article 360 – Financial Emergency 

Part 19 – Miscellaneous: Article 361 to Article 367

  • Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors

Part 20 – Amendment of Constitution: Article 368

  • Article 368  Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution

Part 21 – Special, Transitional, and Temporary Provisions: Article 369 to Article 392

  • Article 370 – Temporary Provision for the erstwhile State of J&K (diluted on August 5 & 6, 2019).
  • Article 371 A –  Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region

Part 22 – Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals: Article 392 to Article 395

  • Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India

Schedules of the Indian Constitution and Important Articles

There are 12 Schedules in the Indian Constitution. These, along with the Indian articles of the Constitution are mentioned below: 

Schedules of Indian ConstitutionIndian Constitution Articles
First ScheduleArticle 1 and Article 4
Second ScheduleArticles:
  • 59
  • 65
  • 75
  • 97
  • 125
  • 148
  • 158
  • 164
  • 186
  • 221
Third ScheduleArticles:
  • 75
  • 84
  • 99
  • 124
  • 146
  • 173
  • 188
  • 219
Fourth ScheduleArticle 4 and Article 80
Fifth ScheduleArticle 244
Sixth ScheduleArticle 244 and Article 275
Seventh ScheduleArticle 246
Eighth ScheduleArticle 344 and Article 351
Ninth ScheduleArticle 31-B
Tenth ScheduleArticle 102 and Article 191
Eleventh ScheduleArticle 243-G
Twelfth ScheduleArticle 243-W

Aspirants can read more about the 12 Schedules of the Indian Constitution from the linked article.

List of other Important Articles in the Indian Constitution

Knowing these Indian Constitution articles will help aspirants score well in Polity section. However, not all of them are important for prelims and UPSC Mains examination. The important articles in the Indian Constitution for civil services examination are given in the table below:

Important Articles of the Indian ConstitutionImportance of Indian Articles
Article 12-35Fundamental Rights
Article 36-50Directive Principles of State Policy
Article 51AFundamental Duties
Article 80Number of Seats in Rajya Sabha
Article 243-243 (o)Panchayati Raj Institutions
Article 343Hindi as Official Language
Article 356Imposition of President’s Rule
Article 370Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir
Article 395Repeals Indian Independence Act and Government of India Act 1919

The Constitution of India is created by a constituent assembly and adopted by its people with a declaration in the preamble to the constitution; hence it divulges constitutional supremacy and not parliamentary supremacy and Parliament cannot override the constitution.

How to remember important articles in the Indian Constitution for UPSC

Memorizing all 448 articles of the Indian Constitution and reproducing them in the civil services exam is not an easy task. It is difficult to learn everything. Below are a few tips to remember the important articles of the Indian Constitution:

Articles Related to Emergency Provisions
Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency.Add the magic number ‘4’Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States
Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in StatesArticle 360: Financial Emergency
Article for CentreAdd the magic number 90Corresponding Article for State
Article 112: Annual financial statement for UnionArticle 202: Annual financial statement for State
Article 113: Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimatesArticle 203: Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates
Article 114: Appropriation BillsArticle 204: Appropriation Bills
Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grantsArticle 205: Supplementary, additional or excess grants
Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grantsArticle 206: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants
Article 117: Special provisions as to financial BillsArticle 207: Special provisions as to financial Bills
Article 118: Rules of procedureArticle 208: Rules of procedure
Article 119: Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial businessArticle 209: Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business
Article 120: Language to be used in Parliament.Article 210: Language to be used in Legislature
Article 121: Restriction on discussion in ParliamentArticle 211: Restriction on discussion in the Legislature
Article 122: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of ParliamentArticle 212: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Legislature
Article 123: Power of President to promulgate OrdinancesArticle 213: Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances
Article 124: Establishment and constitution of Supreme CourtArticle 214: High Courts for States

Article for Centre

Add the magic number ‘89’

Corresponding article for State

Article 72: Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain casesArticle 161: Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
Article 74: Council of Ministers to aid and advice President.Article 163: Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor
Article 75: Other provisions as to MinistersArticle: 164: Other provisions as to Ministers
Article 76: Attorney General for IndiaArticle 165: Advocate General for the State
Article 77: Conduct of business of the Government of IndiaArticle 166: Conduct of business of the Government of a State
Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.Article 167: Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.
Article 79: Constitution of ParliamentArticle 168: Constitution of Legislatures in States
Article 85: Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolutionArticle 174: Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
Article 86: Right of President to address and send messages to HousesArticle 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses
Article 88: Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects HousesArticle 177: Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses
Article 102: Disqualifications for membershipArticle 192: Disqualifications for membership
Article 105: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereofArticle 194: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof
Article 100: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorumArticle 189: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum
Article 111: Assent to Bills (President)Article 200: Assent to Bills (Governor)
Article 110: Definition of Money BillsArticle 199: Definition of “Money Bills” in State Legislature

Remember significant articles in Indian Constitution through Mnemonics-

This is an age-old trick used to memorize a lot of content. Make a string of words or a sentence using key letters from the articles. This way you will be able to recall them faster and with minimum effort. Make your own mnemonics in order to be able to memorize vast quantities of data. For e.g. :

U Can Fix Deposit From United States Using Pre Mature Special Rate.

U – Union

C – Citizenship

F – Fundamental rights

D – Directive Principles

F – Fundamental Duties

U – Union

S – States

U – Union Territories

P – Panchayat

M – Municipality

S – Scheduled

R– Relation between Union and State

Polly Has Certified ManneQuins

P– Prohibition

H-Habeas Corpus

C– Certiorari

Man– Mandamus

Qu– Quo Warranto    

If we look at the previous year’s UPSC question papers, we can come across at least one question related to the Constitution of India. Hence, knowing the importance of the Constitution of India in the IAS exam is essential. This article will mention the must-know articles of our Indian Constitution.

Conclusion

Indian Constitution Articles are a very important part of the Indian Polity. Indian Polity is an important subject in UPSC Mains GS 2. Various questions are targeted at this topic and many others in GS-II and also in Prelims. Candidates can get the UPSC Mains GS 2 Strategy and Syllabus for the trend analysis of other subjects too.

List of Important Articles in Indian Constitution:-Download PDF Here

Conclusion:

Once an aspirant makes note of the list of articles in the Indian Constitution.

Multiple Choice Question

Consider the following statements related to articles in Indian Constitution

  1. As per Article 30, all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.
  2. Article 1 in the Constitution states that India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The territory of India shall consist of: The territories of the states, The Union territories and Any territory that may be acquired in future.
  3. Article 40 of the Constitution which enshrines one of the Directive Principles of State Policy lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
  4. As per Article 350A, it shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.

Choose the correct answer from the below given options

A) Only statements 1 and 3 are false.

B) Only statement 1 is true.

C) None of the above statements are true.

D) All the above statements are true.

Answer: D

About the Author

At the helm of GMS Learning is Principal Balkishan Agrawal, a dedicated and experienced educationist. Under his able guidance, our school has flourished academically and has achieved remarkable milestones in various fields. Principal Agrawal’s visio…
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